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A database is an organized collection of data. The data is typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality (for example, the availability of rooms in hotels), in a way that supports processes requiring this information.

Database management systems (DBMSs) are specially designed applications that interact with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose database management system (DBMS) is a software system designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Access, Oracle, SAP, dBASE, FoxPro, and IBM DB2.

A database is not generally portable across different DBMS, but different DBMSs can inter-operate by using standards such as SQL and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one database.

Introduction to Oracle Database:
Data is a collection of information

Database is regarded as a repository of data stored in an organised manner.

Database Management System (DBMS):
Stored data must be usable. Storing/retrieving data, deletion of data, modification of existing data are the basic database operations. A software tool or programme that handles these operations is called Database Management System.

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS):
Further developed form of DBMS is RDBMS - addition of Relational feature. Here, the data stored in different forms, files or locations will have some sort of Relation through which, operations on data becomes more flexible and performing better.

There are several database models out of which three are prominent
-Network model
-Hierarchical model and
-Relational model

Interacting with Oracle
-Enterprise Manager
-Java and other Oracle Call Interfaces

Introduction to SQL Server
MS SQL Server is a “world-class” Relational Database Information System platform. Incorporating a tremendous power to scale data as well as the ability to transcend an array of data sources, scaling desktops, portable devices (phones, tablets), and data centres as well as private and/or public clouds. This course is for anyone who is interested in gaining an understanding and a working knowledge of SQL via the flexible MS SQL Server toolset.

Designed to facilitate beginners and/or knowledgeable SQL enthusiasts, this is a hands-on course, which de-mystifies the basics of Administering Microsoft SQL. Topics include: learning how to create and manipulate database objects such as tables, indexes, views, and triggers. Students will learn SQL basics that apply to MS SQL as well as to any major Relational Database

Management System (RDBMS); the students will also be introduced to the basics of using SQL Server on the Web. Students will enhance problem solving, analytical and implementation abilities worth maximum currency. Upon completion of this course, students will be a valuable, revenue producing resource on the job and/or in business.

Building a website on SQL architecture is quickly becoming the standard among web 2.0 sites. With a SQL backend, it is fairly simple to store user data, email lists, or other kinds of dynamic data. E-Commerce web sites, community sites, and online web services rely on SQL databases to manage user data or process user purchases.

SQL has become popular among web developers due to its flexibility and simplicity. With some basic knowledge of HTML, PHP, and a database program such as Microsoft's SQL Server, a developer becomes capable of creating complex websites and applications while relying on online web services to provide a SQL backend in which user data is stored. This tutorial will provide you with just a small taste of this type of programming and architecture.

Introduction to MySQL
MySQL is a fast, easy-to-use RDBMS used being used for many small and big businesses. MySQL is developed, marketed, and supported by MySQL AB, which is a Swedish company. MySQL is becoming so popular because of many good reasons.

-MySQL is released under an open-source license. So you have nothing to pay to use it.
-MySQL is a very powerful program in its own right. It handles a large subset of the functionality of the most expensive and powerful database packages.
-MySQL uses a standard form of the well-known SQL data language.
-MySQL works on many operating systems and with many languages including PHP, PERL, C, C++, JAVA etc.
-MySQL works very quickly and works well even with large data sets.
-MySQL is very friendly to PHP, the most appreciated language for web development.
-MySQL supports large databases, up to 50 million rows or more in a table. The default file size limit for a table is 4GB, but you can increase this (if your operating system can handle it) to a theoretical limit of 8 million terabytes (TB).
-MySQL is customizable. The open source GPL license allows programmers to modify the MySQL software to fit their own specific environments.


UNB  Data Management Advanced enables organizations to extract, transform and load (ETL) data from across many different sources to create consistent, accurate information. A point-and-click process design desktop makes it easy to build logical workflows, quickly identify input and output data flows, and create business rules in metadata, all of which enable the rapid generation of data warehouses, data marts and data streams.
UNB also supports the ELT approach of extracting data, loading it into a target database and using database capabilities to transform the data directly within the database (ELT). You simply define whether a process runs in-database or within SAS. In addition, Prism's provides organizations with the flexibility to go beyond the pre-packaged transformations to build unique routines without fear of losing vendor support for custom work.

•  Enables rapid generation of data warehouses, data marts and data streams.
•  Lets you create ETL processes that are reusable, easily modified and have embedded data quality processing.
•  Increases returns on existing IT investments by providing multiple-platform scalability and interoperability.
•  Provides a choice of executing data integration processes within SAS or within a database.

•  A powerful, yet easy-to-use transformation user interface that supports collaboration, reuse of processes and common metadata.
•  SQL-based transforms deliver ELT capabilities out of the box, including create table, join, insert rows, delete rows, update rows, merge, SQL set, extract, and SQL execute.
•  Single- or multiple-source data acquisition, transformation, cleansing and loading to create data warehouses, data marts, or BI and analytic data stores.
•  Metadata is captured and documented throughout the data integration and transformation processes and is available for immediate reuse.
•  Transformations can run on any platform with any data source.
•  More than 300 predefined table and column-level transformations.
•  Ready-to-use analytical transformations, including correlations and frequencies, distribution analysis and summary statistics.
•  Transformation Generator wizard or Java plug-in design templates for creating reusable and repeatable transformations that are tracked and registered in metadata.
•  Transformation processes are callable through custom exits, message queues and Web services, so they are reusable in many different projects and different technology environments.
•  Transformations can be executed interactively and scheduled to run in batch at set times or based on events that trigger execution.
•  Framework for publishing information to archives, a publishing channel, email or various message-queuing middleware.
•  Easily refresh, append and update during loading.
•  Optimize loading techniques with user-selectable options.
•  Database-aware loading techniques, including bulk load facilities, index and key creation, and dropping and truncating of tables.
•  Ability to easily design, create and load OLAP cubes.
•  New transformations generate SAS code that is very efficient with high performance.
•  New transformations include: Type 1 SCD support for merge and hash techniques, table differencing and enhancements for Type 2 SCD loaders.
•  New Compare Tables transformation compares two data sources and detects changes in data.


ETL(Extracting, Transforming and Loading) Tools:

Extract, transform, and load data from applications, databases, and other data stores – for a complete view of structured and unstructured data across your enterprise. Our data integration software can help you build an agile, trusted data foundation that meets your organization’s complex information needs.

•  Access and integrate data from any data source
•  Move data in batches or in real time with a high-performance ETL engine
•  Improve the efficiency of loading large volumes of data into SAP HANA
•  Gain deeper insights from big data by accessing unstructured data through Hadoop systems
•  Drive productivity with a single, intuitive interface for data integration and quality

•  Informatica - Power Center:

•  IBM WebSphereDataStage:

•  IBM Cognos Data Manager:

•  SQL Server Integration Services:

•  Oracle Data Integration:

•  SAS Data Integration Studio:

•  Oracle Warehouse Builder :

•  Sybase - Data Integrated Suite ETL:

•  Talend - Talend Open Studio:

•  OpenSys - CloverETL: